[小知識] 你知道什麼是Dolly Zoom 嗎?

你們知道拍攝時常用的 Dolly zoom 是什麼意思嗎?
 
Dolly zoom 又稱為 Zolly,或是 Vertigo shot,是電影中常用到的一個攝影技巧,有著非常突出的視覺效果。
 
我們先來分別認識 dolly 和 zoom 吧!
Zoom 指的是攝影中的變焦,藉由鏡頭焦段的改變,來達成不同的景框效果(framing)。
(範例: https://vimeo.com/38828455)
可以特別注意在 Zoom 的時候,雖然拍攝主體(人物)會不斷變大或變小,但主體和和背景的相對關係是不變的。
 
Dolly 指的是攝影機向前或向後移動,藉由拍攝位置的改變,來達成不同的景框效果(framing)。
(範例:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cwqDqc-95C0)
特別注意與 Zoom 不同的是,雖然拍攝主題一樣會變大或變小,但 dolly 的時候主體和背景的相對關係會發生改變(想像手掌打開放在面前,你的臉愈靠近手掌,背景被遮到的愈多)。
 
因此,下面有幾個用詞:
Zoom in 主體變大,背景等量變大
Zoom out 主體變小,背景等量變小
Dolly in 主體變大,背景相對不變
Dolly out 主體變小,背景相對不變
 
聰明的你,有沒有想到過,如果在 Zoom in 的同時 Dolly out,會發生什麼事呢?
一般公認第一個有這樣想法的人,是羅馬尼亞的攝影師 Sergiu Huzum;但 Dolly zoom 第一次出現在電影中,卻不是由他所拍攝的。
緊張大師希區考克的經典之作 迷魂記 (Vertigo) ,在1958年就第一次使用了 Doolly zoom 這個攝影技巧,來表達男主角因懼高症心理而影響了他的視覺。
 
跟據先前提到的資訊,我們會得到,如果我們在 Zoom in 的同時 Dolly out 或是 Zoom out 的同時 Dolly in,就會得到一個主體不變,而背景不斷放大或縮小的鏡頭。
 
後來這樣的手法,常被用來表現主角的精神狀態異常,或想通了什麼事情、發現了某個祕密,演員就算只要面無表情的站著,看起來也很有效果。
 
以下這段影片,我們可以看到 Dolly zoom 在電影史上是如何不斷地被使用的,而後世也會為了紀念迷魂記,而將 Dolly zoom 稱為 Vertigo shot 或 Vertigo effect 哦!

If you’re new to filmmaking you may not be familiar with the dolly zoom effect, but in all likelihood, you’ve seen it used in numerous films.
 
So what is dolly zoom?
 
Dolly zoom (also known as Zolly or Vertigo shot) is a commonly used technique in filmmaking. It is a very eye-catching visual effect.
 
Let’s first discuss the difference between zoom and dolly in/out, and the different effects they can create.
Zoom uses the lens’ change in focal length to achieve a different framing effect.
 
Dolly in/out uses the actual physical movement of the dolly to achieve the desired framing effect.

 
Though both of these techniques can have the effect of enlarging or shrinking the subject, using the dolly in/out effect will cause the relationship between the background and the subject to change. Imagine your hand is stretched out in front of your face, if you gradually bring your hand towards your face, the background will become less prominent as your hand comes closer to your face.

 
So as a general guide:
Zoom in: Subject will enlarge, as will the background.
Zoom out: Subject will shrink, as will the background.
Dolly in: Subject will enlarge, but the background will not enlarge to the same extent.
Dolly out: Subject will shrink, but the background will not shrink to the same extent.
 

As one might expect, if we zoom in and dolly out at the same time or zoom out and dolly in at the same time, the subject will not change but the background will enlarge or shrink. In Alfred Hitchcock’s masterpiece thriller “Vertigo” (1958), the dolly zoom effect was used for the first time. Hitchcock used it to capture the disorienting effect of intense vertigo on the vision of the male lead. In fact, the effect was so widely praised after the movie’s release, that dolly zoom is still often called ‘the Vertigo shot’ or ‘the Vertigo effect’.
 

The dolly zoom would later come to be used to show a character is experiencing an abnormal or disorienting mental state. The effect also came to be used to show a sudden realization or discovery of a secret. The effect is so prominent that even if the actor is emotionlessly standing still, the dolly zoom can still convey these sensations perfectly.
 

The dolly zoom has been in continual use since its introduction, and continues to enthrall viewers and directors.
Below you can see a short clip where you can see the effect of dolly zoom in action.

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